Stanford University or Stanford, is an American private research university located in Stanford, California near Palo Alto. The campus is located in the heart of Silicon Valley, approximately 60km from San Francisco.
Leland Stanford, Governor of and U.S. Senator from California and leading railroad tycoon, and his wife, Jane Lathrop Stanford, founded the university in 1891 in memory of their son, Leland Stanford, Jr., who died of typhoid two months before his 16th birthday. The university struggled financially after the senior Stanford’s 1893 death and after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates’ entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would become known as Silicon Valley. By 1970, Stanford was home to a linear accelerator, and was one of the original four ARPANET nodes (precursor to the Internet).
Since 1952, 52 Stanford faculty, staff, and alumni have won the Nobel Prize, including 19 current faculty members, and Stanford has the largest number of Turing award winners (dubbed the “Nobel Prize of Computer Science”) for a single institution. Stanford is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts, and it is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Faculty and alumni have founded many prominent companies including Google, Hewlett-Packard, Nike, Sun Microsystems, and Yahoo!, and companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world. Stanford is also home to the original papers of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Stanford is a founding member of the Association of American Universities.