Even when high suprabasal growth is forcing the tooth germ into a globular shape, high mesenchymal growth can contribute to the epithelial folding by pushing the epithelium from underneath (e.g. other tissues. D, a different parameter exploration was performed by varying the two parameters controlling epithelial bending forces (and lead to cervical loops that are slightly more straight.(PNG) pcbi.1005981.s002.png (5.7M) GUID:?A82C9B80-A1EF-4834-8775-A1F4E08DD177 S3 Fig: Parameter screening of the tissue specific proliferation rates (and and constant, under the different hypotheses Klf2 (frontal sections depicted). In all cases, cervical loops form when is relatively high and is relatively low, but only in hypotheses II and III these are oriented downwards as in tooth development. D, Variation in tooth morphology when is changed under hypothesis II. E, Same as OSS-128167 in D for hypothesis III. A relatively high mesenchymal proliferation is necessary for the proper formation of the tooth crown. The epithelium is shown in blue, the enamel knot is shown in red, OSS-128167 OSS-128167 the mesenchyme in purple and the suprabasal layer in yellow. and values are expressed in data. A, B, individual frames from the time-lapse video (taken from Morita et al. 2016 with permission) that we chose as starting and finishing time points for the measurement. The white segment in A corresponds to the reference unit of length we chose for measuring epithelial perimeter and suprabasal surface area. C, Depiction of how we took the measurements in the empirical data set. A polygon was drawn by hand on the epithelial-suprabasal interface (cyan and red segments) using ImageJ (Schindelin et al. 2012). The surface area of the suprabasal tissue was calculated from the polygons surface area, whereas the length of the epithelium was calculated from the total length of the cyan segment. D, depiction of the 2D model initial conditions, showing the length of the reference unit used for the model measurements (white segment). E, depiction of how the measurements were taken on the 2D model. The suprabasal tissue surface area and epithelial perimeter were calculated using a Delaunay triangulation. The polygon depicted in cyan and red marks the limit of the suprabasal tissue used for the surface area calculations and the cyan segment was used to calculate the length of the epithelium.(PNG) pcbi.1005981.s004.png (2.2M) GUID:?B3D4B823-F9A1-4781-BD44-DEA4806E087B S5 Fig: Sensitivity analysis of the 2D model parameter screening. Each plots OSS-128167 shows the distribution of the standard error between model and empirical data in log scale (Y axis) separately for the different values of one specific parameter (X axis) as a violin plot. Each violin groups simulation runs with a fixed value of a specific parameter, while the rest may have different values. The width of the violin at a certain height indicates the density of data points (i.e. simulation runs) that show a specific value of standard error. The analysis was done for hypotheses II (A-D) and III (B-H). A, E, violin plots for the different values of parameter and the adhesion parameters. The violin plots were made with the vioplot R package.(PNG) pcbi.1005981.s005.png (995K) GUID:?904E6984-5D10-477B-882D-8BD2FF336C32 S6 Fig: Parameter exploration of differential adhesion parameters. A, Tooth germ morphologies are shown with different combinations of mesenchymal homotypic adhesion and suprabasal homotypic adhesion values, while the other adhesion parameters are set to 1 1.0. High values of mesenchymal homotypic adhesion result in low growth angles whereas high values of suprabasal homotypic adhesion result in high growth angles. B, Morphologies are shown with different combinations of mesenchymal homotypic adhesion and epithelial-mesenchymal adhesion values (other adhesion parameters set to 1 1.0). High values of epithelial-mesenchymal adhesion result in low growth angles. Frontal sections shown. Epithelium in blue, suprabasal layer in yellow, mesenchyme in purple and enamel knot in red. C, D, OSS-128167 Sagital sections of.